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Issue 9: Water Applications

Range-Extended Post-Processing Kinematic (PPK) in a Marine Environment

Marcelo Santos, Felipe Nievinski, Karen Cove, Robert Kingdon, and Dave Wells

Download the full paper in PDF (432 KB)


We have been investigating the extension in range of baselines used in support to marine applications. Our focus has been with PPK (post-processing kinematic) following the Remondi's lemma: "it is better to have a reliable float ambiguity resolution rather than a wrongly fixed ambiguity." We have focused our attention on the residual effect due to differential troposphere. Our investigation makes use of data sets collected under the scope of the Princess of Acadia Project.

In this paper, we focus on a storm know as the 2004 Halifax weather bomb. Zenith tropospheric delays have been compared for that time period. It is shown that using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) GEM model provides a better agreement with the zenith delay as provided by the IGS tropospheric product for station IGS UNB1. We have developed a program, the UNB NWP Ray-tracing software, intended to compute zenith and slant path delays from NWP data sets. This paper shows the state of the art in our efforts towards using NWP for positioning.


  • Reprinted with permission from The Institute of Navigation ( and The Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation, (pp. 805-809). Fairfax, VA: The Institute of Navigation.


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