Chris has more than 30 years of professional experience, joining Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems in December 2002 from the LM Global Telecommunications (LMGT) Systems & Technology (S&T) organization. She began her career with COMSAT Laboratories in 1976, and transitioned to the LMGT Systems & Technology organization as director of Network Planning & Management Line of Business when Lockheed Martin acquired COMSAT in 2000. Throughout her career, she has been responsible for the capture and development of communications planning, operations and management systems for both government and commercial customers. Her experience includes functional and program management responsibilities along with business development and software engineering experience. She has experience in managing international, domestic, fixed price and cost plus fee contracts.
Chris has a B.S. in Applied Math and an M.S.E.E from George Washington University.
1) How did you get started in the satellite business?
I had the good fortune of joining COMSAT Labs in 1976 as my first job. I was awed by the expertise of the world class scientists and the work performed at the Labs and I quickly decided to pursue my M.S. E.E. in Communications. It was truly a privilege to participate in the industry at that relatively early stage of satellite communications.
2) How have you been involved in changes brought about in or by this business (innovations, technologies, services)?
For many years I was responsible for developing modeling and simulation tools to support satellite communications operations and analysis, as well as communications management systems. As a result, I was able to participate in the proof-of-concept phases for many innovations, particularly in the commercial satellite industry including Intelsat and Inmarsat. Some of the major areas included satellite transmission impairments analysis and frequency planning for new satellites and frequency spectrums, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) network management, channel modeling, and satellite constellation life cycle modeling. Not only did I experience the evolution of the communications technologies, but also the rapid advances in computer technologies and software development.
3) What do you think was the greatest event/situation/opportunity you experienced?
Relatively early in my career, my team was responsible for developing the burst scheduling software and earth station terminal time plans for the Intelsat TDMA 120 Mbit/s system that launched in the mid 1980s. The system worked almost flawlessly and it was amazing to know that traffic was successfully transmitted with the software we developed playing such a key role in the technical success of the system.
4) What was the greatest obstacle?
The trade of technology vs. cost is always the greatest obstacle. I worked on initiatives for several satellite systems throughout my career that were technically sound and would have provided great advances in satellite communications but unfortunately due to cost and funding constraints were not able to continue, or were launched with minimum functionality.
5) What do you see happening in the next five years in this industry?
I think there will be continued emphasis on smaller terminals, low cost handsets, software and cognitive radio.
6) What advice do you have for women interested in entering the industry?
I would especially encourage young women to consider joining the space industry. I think women may shy away from engineering because they believe it is less of a social and people-intensive industry than it truly is. This is an industry of innovation where diversity and teamwork are keys to success.
Women in Space
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Anita Antenucci, Managing Dir. Houlihan Lokey's Aerospace-Defense-Government
Dr. Wanda M. Austin Pres. & CEO, The Aerospace Corporation
Julie Bannerman, Gen.Counsel, Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
Sharri Berg, Senior V.P., News Operations, Fox News
Leslie Blaker, DataPath, Inc.
Yvonne Brill, Consultant, Satellite Tech. & Space Propulsion Systems
Michelle Bryan, Senior V.P., Human Resources, Intelsat
Dr. Angie Bukley, Ph.D., Electrical Engineering
Catherine Chang, General Counsel & Asst. Company Secretary, AsiaSat
Sabrina Cubbon, Gen. Manager, Marketing, AsiaSat
Yvette Dominguez, Manager, Payload Design Engineering Section, Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
Chris Ehrenbard, Dir., Broadcast Distribution, CBS
Mary Ann Elliot, Chairman of the Board, Arrowhead Global Solutions, Inc.
Celeste Ford, Founder & CEO, Stellar Solutions, Inc.
Mary Frost, former CEO, GlobeCast America
Eilene Galloway, NASA Pioneer
Carmen González-Sanfeliu, V.P., Latin America & Caribbean, Intelsat
Dawn Harms, V.P., Marketing & Sales, Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
Ellen Hoff, Pres., W.L. Pritchard & Co., L.C.
Polly Rash Hollis, Satellite Industry Professional
Britt Horncastle, Satellite Consultant
Susan Irwin, Pres., Irwin Communications, Inc.
Barbara Jaffe, Senior V.P., Advanced Technology and Operations, HBO
Christine King, Deputy V.P., Technical Services & Engineering, Lockheed Martin
Betsy Kulick, Newsletter Editor & Corporate Secretary, Mobile Satellite Users Association
Penelope Longbottom, Founder & Pres., Longbottom Communications
Joanne Maguire, Exec. V.P., Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company
Andrea Maléter, Technical Dir., Futron Corporation
Joan T. Mancuso, Founder & Executive, Broadband International LLC
Dolores Martos, V.P., Sales for Latin America & Caribbean, SES Americom - SES New Skies
Brig. Gen. Susan K. Mashiko, Vice Commander, Space & Missile Systems Center, L.A. Air Force Base
Eileen McGowan, Corporate Strategy & Planning, Intelsat
Olwen Morgan, Development Engineer
Bridget Neville, V.P. & Gen. Manager, Satellite Engineering & Operations, Sirius XM Radio
Christine Paape, V.P., Space Explorers, Inc.
Rhonda Parson, Manager, Occasional-Use Sales & Traffic Division, EchoStar Satellite Services
Maj. Gen. Ellen M. Pawlikowski, Deputy Dir., National Reconnaissance Office
Jane Petro, Kennedy Space Center Deputy Director
Dr. Nongluck Phinainitisart, D.Eng., Pres., Thaicom PLC
Mary Quagliotti, Retired Major General, Army
Radhika Ramachandran, Ph.D., Counsellor (SPACE) & Technical Liaison Officer
Veena Rawat, Pres., Communications Research Centre, Canada
Joslyn Read, V.P., Regulatory Affairs, SES Americom - SES New Skies
Walda Roseman, Founder & CEO, CompassRose International, Inc.
Farah Suhanah Ahmad Sarji, General Counsel, MEASAT
Jacqueline Schenkel, Founder, Schenkel & Associates, LLC
Kay Sears, Pres., Intelsat General
Gwynne Shotwell, Pres., SpaceX
Marcia Smith, Pres., Space Technology Policy Group, LLC
Pascale Sourisse, Gen. Manager, Land & Joint Systems Division, Thales
Andy Steinem, CEO, Dahl-Morrow International
Nicole P. Stott, Astronaut, NASA
Bambi Taskarelli, Voice/Data Engineer, NBCU
Leslie Taylor, Strategic Planning Division Office of Spectrum Management, NTIA, U.S. Dept. of Commerce
Synette Tom, Marketing Dir., Sales, Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
Marjorie Rhodes Townsend, Satellite Communications Consultant
Diane Tryneski, Senior V.P., Broadcast & Studio Operations, HBO
Diane VanBeber, V.P., Investor Relations, Corporate & Marketing Communications, Intelsat
Barbara Warren, Systems Analyst, International Telecommunication Union
Zhang Yan, Gen. Manager, CITICSat and Chief Rep., Asiasat